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Rmel river basin, Tunisia

Rmel map
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Case Study Coordinator: Sihem Jebari; Rmel society

BeWater Impact

  • Due to the high synergy between the options belonging to bundle 1 related to the water and soil conservation and the national strategy adopted by the DG/ACTA Farmland Conservation and management Department. The latter department has committed to support the implementation of some of these options.
  • The decision makers appreciate the final outcomes of the project and consider the project as a successful model to get inspired from for the future projects. BeWater is now considered as a stepping stone to establish a significant collaboration between science and society.
  • The knowledge gathered through the BeWater are being included as a reference into specific professional education programs such as master classes..
  • According to the CRDA, many measures concerning forest resources will be implemented via the African Development Bank funding devoted to Zaghouan.
  • The regional environmental department is now considering four specific options to be part of their future development plan. This department is now coping with local NGOs to continue raising awareness programs based on BeWater approach and outputs.

About the river basin

Rmel River Basin is located in the Governorate of Zaghouan, in eastern Tunisia. It covers an area of 740 km2 and covers a population of 40,000 inhabitants.

The River Basin is an agricultural region with patches of forest. The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean characterized by mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers. The River Basin coincides with a 450 mm/year isohyet (a line on a map of equal or constant rainfall) and plays an important hydrological role as it links the main “wadis” (valleys). Water resources are based on surface water use, while agriculture is based on cereal crops and cattle raising. The River Basin discharges into a dam which was built in 1996. It is part of the hydrological monitoring network that included around 30 experimental river basins at representative sites along the Tunisian Dorsal range.





Tordera river basin, Spain

tordera map
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Case Study coordinators: Annelies Broekman and Diana PascualTordera society

BeWater Impact

  • High synergy with current River Basin Management Plan for the Catalan River Basin District: 20 measures from the 33 included in the adaptation plan are taken into consideration for implementation (2016-2021).
  • High synergy with the Montseny Natural Park and Biosphere Reserve LIFE Tritó project: 10 measures from the BeWater project were taken into account for forest and water management to go hand in hand restoring ecosystem functionality in the Tordera headwaters.
  • The experience based knowledge generated by the BeWater project is taken into account in the revision of the Catalan Strategy for Climate Change as a best practice to rise citizens’ awareness on efficient natural resource use and provide scientific information on the risks of climate change.
  • Different concrete proposals raised by BeWater process in the basin are mainstreamed into Municipal Action Plans for Adaptation (e.g.St. Celoni municipality), also pursuing increased collaboration between neighbouring areas.
  • Stakeholders that participated in the co-creation of the adaptation plan are pursuing the integration of the outcomes in their activities and express ownership of the plan, delivering a pro-active and fertile environment for the implementation at different scales and locations in the basin, like for example restoration of riparian vegetation or awareness raising activities.
  • Different project proposals, both at European level – such as H2020 program- and at national level – such as those assigned by the Foundation for Biodiversity from the Spanish Government – are developed to implement prioritised measures, such as the creation of an Integrated Plan for the Tordera Delta.

About the river basin

Tordera River Basin is a non-regulated river basin located in the northern part of Catalonia (NE Spain). Tordera presents typical Mediterranean conditions with a high environmental diversity, ranging from the mountain tops of the headwaters to the delta area.

It is a forested river basin (81%) with 10% of the land used for agriculture, which is concentrated in the intermediate and low sections, especially in the delta plain. Industry is also present, mainly in the intermediate section. Its coastal strip presents a high demographic pressure, both seasonal and permanent.

CSRB Challenges

  • Due to the effects of climate change river flows will decrease, especially in the upper parts of the Basin. Flow regime will also shift into new patterns, affecting flora and fauna of the basin.
  • Humid forests in the upper part of the basin will suffer the effects of climate change. General tendencies indicate carbon uptake by forests could change its trend from being a sink into becoming a carbon source.
  • Agriculture in the basin will face the effects of climate change too. Agronomic calendar changes will induce different crop and irrigation water management.
  • For the people living in the basin, climatic conditions will become more uncomfortable. Higher temperatures may also increase domestic water consumption levels.


Pedieos river basin, Cyprus

pedieos mapPrepared by Corrado Camera (CyI)
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Case study coordinator: Elias Giannakis; Pedieos society

BeWater Impact

  • The cooperation of stakeholders from governmental and non-governmental organizations and from different sectors (water, agriculture, forestry, environment, urban planning, education) facilitated the development of a broad and diverse set of adaptation options.
  • The presentation of the adaptation plan to the Committee of Environment of the Cyprus Parliament strengthened the political base for the implementation of key adaptation options.
  • Selected adaptation options, e.g., green roofs for reducing flooding in urban areas in a semi-arid climate, are under pilot testing and demonstration.
  • The active science-society interaction during the project’s lifetime and the dissemination of the adaptation options through various activities, e.g., educational and environmental fairs and events, as well as citizen surveys, increased climate change awareness of the general public, including that of the younger generation, thus establishing popular support for climate change adaptation.
  • The active participation of stakeholders in BeWater meetings and workshops has facilitated the exchange of knowledge and cooperation. Formal and informal communication channels have been created (e.g., steering committees) within governmental departments but also between governmental departments and municipalities to implement integrated strategies for water management and climate change adaptation.

About the river basin

The Pedieos River is an ephemeral stream, which originates in the north-eastern hillsides of the Troodos mountain complex.

The river basin has its highest elevation at 1400m above sea level and covers a population of 192,000 inhabitants. The fractured volcanic formations in the upstream area are mainly covered by conifers, with smaller areas of sclerophyllous and shrub woodlands and few plots of rain-fed cereals, irrigated fruit trees, greenhouses and livestock farms.

At the bottom of the foothills, the 2.8million m3 Tamassos dam, which was completed in 2002, captures the runoff of the 45km2 upstream river basin. The dam provides groundwater recharge, flood protection and water supply for nearby communities. Downstream from the dam, the river basin crosses about half a dozen rural communities, which grow rain-fed and groundwater-irrigated crops in the Mesaoria plain.

The river then flows into the urban agglomeration of the capital Nicosia and its adjacent municipalities, exacerbating existing urban flooding incidents. The river basin covers approximately 120km2 at the green line in Nicosia, where it flows into the occupied areas of northern Cyprus. Average annual precipitation ranges between 320mm downstream to 670mm at the top. The area is covered by a number of rain gauges and meteorological stations of the Cyprus Meteorological Service; discharge has been measured in the upstream area by the Water Development Department.

More information about Pedieos


Vipava river basin, Slovenia

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Case study coordinator: Peter Suhadolnik; Vipava society

BeWater Impact

  • BeWater participative process for the first time gathered stakeholders from different sectors and include them in the development of the RBAP from the start. RBAP is therefore plan with high input from stakeholders and is now accepted as their plan.
  • The BeWater project became a well-known brand for the promotion of the inclusion of adaptation into policy design amongst stakeholders, residents of Vipava RB and representatives of authorities.
  • Some WMOs were implemented before BeWater project ended. One of those is the Council for Vipava River which was established by the end of 2015 and is totally in line with WMO 1 Establish an inter-municipal expert working group for the Vipava river basin.
  • The Life ViVaCCAdapt project started in the middle of year 2016. The project is in some parts follow up of project BeWater. Especially in the part where project will establish new shelterbelts for wind protection what is implementation of WMO 20 Preservation of existing and introduction of new shelterbelts.
  • Two new proposals for projects are being prepared in Vipava RB which refer to the results of BeWater projects. One by the Ministry for Environment and Spatial Planning which is called VISFRIM and it is a cross border project with Italy aiming to improve flood risk protection. The second is coordinated by the Council for Vipava River called GREVISIN aiming to establish green infrastructure along Vipava River.

About the river basin

Vipava River Basin is located in the south-west of Slovenia and is part of Soča river basin area. It covers an area of 598 km2 and a population of 52,000 inhabitants.

In contrast to its karst region surroundings, most of the Vipava River Basin region has an impervious flysch sedimentary rock base. The main water body is the Vipava River which is 45 km long and has a mean annual flow of 17.3 m3/s. The water level of the Vipava River varies significantly due to karst surface tributaries. Before river regulations were introduced in the 1970s, floods were very common in Vipava valley. The climate of the region is Mediterranean, with mild winters and hot summers.

The River Basin has a complete monitoring network, with 8 main meteorological stations within the area of influence of the basin (data series between 20 and 62 years) and 6 gauging stations on the Vipava River (data series between 10 and 72 years) and 6 gauging stations on its tributaries (data series between 10 and 70 years). Land cover has been monitored from 1993 and water consumption data for the region are available from 2002. Data on socio-economic indicators are available at Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.

CSRB Challenges

  • Morphological changes of riverbanks, wetlands and coastal zone
  • Industrial pollution
  • Water flow regulation and abstraction
  • Diffuse pollution caused by agriculture
  • Invasive species